A very happy Fourth of July to everyone, and I hope your summer is as filled with fun science and education as ours is here in Green Bank. Our summer hires have, as usual, added an additional 50% to the overall staff here, and span the range from people painting the telescope, interns with our plant maintenance program, tour guides, cafeteria and café workers, and students taking part in co-ops, interns, and Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) positions on site. Our other summer visitors include participants in our undergraduate radio astronomy course, PING (Physics Inspiring the Next Generation) campers, Pulsar Search Collaboratory participants, West Virginia Science teachers taking part in the Earth/Space Science Passport development program, Chautauqua, StarQuest, and Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA) attendees, and the annual undergraduate Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) workshop participants. The 6th annual Space Race Rumpus also took place here the weekend of June 9-11, and attracted a record 170 participants from the eastern United States who biked, danced, and learned a little astronomy on the side.
Within the next 1-2 months we anticipate the release of the draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) report. Once the draft EIS report is released, a 45 day window will open for comments on the document, including 1-2 onsite meetings. Announcement of the report, information on how to provide comments, and the dates/times for the scheduled meetings will be release on the NSF website [nsf.gov]. A link to this information will also be provided on the Green Bank Observatory website.
Looking forward, we have a number of items coming up in the next few months. In addition to our annual open house which is taking place September 10, and another observer training workshop the following week, we also plan on attending the upcoming URSI (Union Radio Scientifique Internationale) General Assembly in Montreal this August. After that, we will begin preparations for our 60th birthday celebrations being held in October.
Enjoy your summer!
Dr. Karen O’Neil,
Director, Green Bank Observatory
The Green Bank Observatory (GBO) invites scientists to participate in the GBO’s 2018A Semester Call for Proposals for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The entire proposal call can be found on our proposals page.
The submission deadline for Semester 2018A proposals is Tuesday, 1 August 2017, at 17:00 EDT (21:00 UTC).
The GBO wishes to remind proposers of continuing opportunities for joint observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
Jansky Lecture – Jacqueline van Gorkom (Columbia University)
The 2016 Jansky Lecture — Gas and Galaxy Evolution — will be given on July 31 at 7:00 PM in the Science Center Auditorium by Dr. Jacqueline van Gorkom of Columbia University. It is free and open to the public. The Jansky Lectureship is an honor established by the trustees of AUI to recognize outstanding contributions to the advancement of radio astronomy.
Professor van Gorkom is a longtime radio astronomer, specializing in studies of neutral hydrogen, the most abundant element in the Universe. Her observations have focused on the distribution and dynamics of hydrogen in and around nearby galaxies of varied types and in widely different environments, and how the gas affects the evolution of the galaxies. She currently leads an important Very Large Array observing project aimed at learning how these properties change over time by observing hydrogen at greater cosmic distances.
The Jansky Lectureship has been awarded annually since 1966. It is named in honor of the man who first detected radio waves from a cosmic source in 1932.
Have you heard?! The Green Bank Observatory in Green Bank, WV is hosting a Great American Eclipse viewing party. Don’t miss out on this rare event. It’s been 26 years since a partial solar eclipse was visible from West Virginia! West Virginians will be able to see a 90% partial eclipse this August. So join us from 11:00 a.m. until 4:00 p.m. for a day of food, fun, and education!
- Hands-on Activities from 11 a.m.- 12 p.m.
- Lunch and Exhibits from 12 p.m. – 1 p.m.
Safe eclipse viewing through telescopes and projections. Plus live streaming video of the eclipse provided by NASA.
We would love to know if you’re joining us! Visit our Great American Eclipse event page and let us know you’re attending today!
Green Bank Open House and Family Science Day
The Green Bank Science Center hosts our annual Open House and Family Science Day event. With past attendance reaching over 700 guests, this is the most popular way for our visitors to enjoy hands-on experiments and get to know the Green Bank Observatory.
Where else can you… build and launch a rocket, test your engineering skills, learn about liquid nitrogen, and see some of the biggest telescopes all in one day? Public site tours are available as well as rare peeks into the GBT Control Room. Each year, the Valley Aerospace Team builds custom launch pads, helps participants build their rockets, and even brings a few of their own custom rockets to launch. This event is free and fun for all ages. Plan to come early! Rocket kits are first come, first serve.
Observer Training Workshop
September 18 – 22
The Green Bank Observatory will host the next GBT observer training workshop September 18-22 2017. The workshop will provide an introduction to general radio astronomical techniques as well as onsite training for GBT observers. We especially encourage high frequency observers (i.e. those interested in observing at 8 GHz and above) to attend in preparation for the winter season. The workshop will include dedicated time for general purpose training on the GBT in a compact, one week workshop and includes training to become qualified to observe remotely. For further information, please see the event page.
Transformative Science Workshop Updates
October 16 – 20
Big Questions, Large Programs, and New Instruments: With new instruments and excellent performance, the 100m Green Bank Telescope is only just reaching its full potential. On this 60th anniversary of the ground breaking for the Green Bank Observatory, we are holding a workshop looking toward the next 10, 20, and even 60 years of the Green Bank Observatory, and invite the community to attend and aid us in planning the future. For more information, please see the event page.
60th Anniversary of the Green Bank Observatory
On October 17 2017, the Green Bank Observatory turns 60 years old, and we would like to invite you to help us celebrate! The celebration will take place on site the afternoon and evening of October 17, and will include tours, talks, discussions, and, of course, food. Information on the gathering will be posted online by mid-August.
Ammonia in Orion – Star Formation Press Release
A team of astronomers has unveiled a striking new image of the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC) – a bustling stellar nursery teeming with bright, young stars and dazzling regions of hot, glowing gas.
The researchers used the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia to study a 50 light-year long filament of star-forming gas that is wending its way through the northern portion of the OMC known as Orion A.
Previously released – Read the full press release.
Latest commissioning observations with the Focal L-band Array for the GBT (FLAG) and the real-time beamformer
Following a successful test of the FLAG phased-array feed on the GBT in March, a team of astronomers and engineers from Brigham Young University (BYU) and West Virginia University (WVU) came to Green Bank in late May to work with National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and GBO engineers in commissioning the broadband beamformer funded by a NSF ATI grant. All three modes of the beamformer were tested: a 150 MHz, coarse resolution mode for calibration, a 150 MHz real-time beamforming mode for pulsar timing and transient surveys, and a narrow-band, 10 MHz, spectral-line mode. The tests confirmed the excellent Tsys/η = 28 K at 1350 MHz, equivalent to the existing single pixel feed and with good sensitivity across the entire 30′ field of view. The FLAG beamformer system will be seven times faster for mapping projects than the current single pixel receiver.
Tests of the real-time beamformer included observations of the pulsar B1937+21 in the central beam, where individual giant pulses were detected (see figure). Multiple bright galaxies were observed using On/Off single-pointing maps in spectral line mode, but these data are still being processed.
Final commissioning observations will take place in August, including tests of the commensal spectral line and real-time transient detection mode, with the hope that the instrument will be available for shared-risk observing in the near future.
Beamformer Team: Brian Jeffs, Karl Warnick, Richard Black, Mitchell Burnett, Mark Rudzindana (BYU); Duncan Lorimer, Maura McLaughlin, D.J. Pisano, Nick Pingel, Kaustubh Rajwade (WVU); Richard Prestage, Paul Marganian, Thomas Chamberlin, Vereese van Tonder, Luke Hawkins, Jason Ray (GBO) and more.
The work of the FLAG (Phased Array Feed) Team is also acknowledged for the development of the new, low-noise cryogenic phased array feed receiver (PAF), including: D. Anish Roshi, William Shillue, J.R. Fisher, Matt Morgan, Jason Castro, Wavley Groves, Tod Boyd (NRAO); Bob Simon, Steve White, J.D. Nelson (GBO) and many others. The successful PAF commissioning was reported on in the April 2017 newsletter.
During the first week of June the Green Bank Observatory welcomed 22 students from the GBO and NRAO for an annual summer student workshop. Young scientists and engineers enrolled in the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU), Physicists Inspiring the Next Generation (PING), and the National Astronomy Consortium (NAC), as well as summer graduate students, gathered to prepare for summer research through talks, observing projects, team-building exercises, and behind the scenes tours of the observatory. The workshop also gives summer students from across AUI the chance to meet face-to-face and provides career development opportunities. This year’s students were treated to a historical site tour, hands on observing with the GBO’s 40-foot radio telescope, and a special science talk on fast radio bursts by Prof. Duncan Lorimer of West Virginia University. The workshop continues a long tradition of excellence in student education at GBO.
GBO Machine Shop Gives Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) a Lift
To perform routine receiver service and upgrades on ALMA’s 66 antennas, supercooled “Front End” containers that house the receivers and electronics for each antenna must be carefully removed. To handle that removal and transport, ALMA uses Front End Handling Vehicles (FEHV), which are large lift carts specifically designed to transport the ALMA Front Ends.
Each Front End package weighs approximately 750 kilograms (1,600 lbs) and must be lifted over 5 feet above the floor inside the highly confined receiver room of each antenna. FEHVs were designed specifically to make that task safer, quicker, and more routine.
The GBO Machine shop is in the midst of fabricating new FEHV chassis to help out ALMA North America.
Because of the weight and instrumentation these FEHVs need to carry, rigorous certification processes are being followed. Congratulations to Pat Schaffner, who successfully obtained an American Welding Society (AWS) structural welding certification on his first try, which was a prerequisite to proceeding with the work. The AWS representative that conducted the certification review reported that Pat did a “great job. Usually 1 out of 3 test samples will break at the weld but none of Pat’s did.”
The first chassis has been assembled, certified by an external inspector, and shipped to Chile where it will be integrated into a full handling vehicle for acceptance. The Machine Shop has been given the go ahead to proceed with the fabrication of three additional units.
Thanks to Pat, Roger Dickenson, Mike Hedrick and everyone in the Shop for the great work, and to Butch Wirt, Todd Wright, and the Maintenance team for building a custom shipping crate.
Want to plan your visit? The new Green Bank Observatory Reservation System (GBORS) is now live! Our visitors can now create an account to track and manage all reservations from overnight stays and meal planning to meeting room requests and group visits. This tool makes visiting a cinch for our GBT users.
As always, please feel free to contact our reservationist for support at gro.y1708604953rotav1708604953resbo1708604953bg@sn1708604953oitav1708604953reser1708604953 or 304-456-2011. The new reservation tool is live now.
GBT Joins Goldstone and Allen Telescope Array in Radar Test
Use of the GBT as a radar receiver is a commonplace activity for Green Bank, but recently we participated in an interesting experiment with a bit of a different twist. We were contacted by the Advanced Physics Lab at Johns Hopkins to participate the Advanced Space Radar Experiment (ASRE) as a monitoring and recording station. The project tested the ability of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) to receive X-Band signals bounced off commercial satellites in geosynchronous orbit. While the ATA used sets of antennas to correlate into multiple beams, the GBT used the JPL radar backend to receive all of the signals as a reference for the post-experiment analysis.
The ASRE project purchased six hours of GBT time to conduct the experiment using four different satellites as targets and varying radar transmission waveforms. One other interesting feature of the test was the use of three Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas with their radar transmitters phased together into a single higher power beam at the target. You may be familiar with a similar system long, long, ago.
After initial data analysis, the experiment appears to be a success and the GBT systems performed flawlessly. It is unclear if any follow-on experiments are planned, but a request for additional funds for the experiment is underway. Test participants included: Jet Propulsion Lab, SRI, GBO, Aerospace, MITRE, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, JHU/APL
The Frank Drake Lectureship
Dr. Frank Drake has had a long and distinguished career that began at the Observatory in Green Bank West Virginia in 1958. His scientific achievements include discovery of the radiation belts of Jupiter, some of the earliest measurements of pulsars, contributions to our understanding of the high surface temperature of Venus, and characterization of the radio sources at the center of the Milky Way.
In 1960, using a radio telescope at Green Bank, Dr. Drake made the first modern search for radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. He thus began an area of scientific research that has continued and is flourishing today, engaging creative minds worldwide. The Drake equation, first introduced in Green Bank in 1961, has caught the public imagination and continues to draw audiences around the world to discuss and learn about science and astronomy.
In recognition of the work Dr. Drake has done, the Frank Drake Lectureship was created to recognize individuals from the sciences, arts or humanities in recognition of their contributions to advancing human knowledge and creativity in the scientific realm.
The Frank Drake Lectureship is awarded to one individual annually. The recipient of this award will present the annual Frank Drake Lecture in Green Bank, West Virginia. The public lecture will promote scientific knowledge or literacy. All costs associated with the awardee’s travel will be covered through the lecture series, as well a dinner, held in the awardee’s honor. The awardee will receive both a plaque honoring his/her award and a $1,000 honorarium.
Nominations for the 2017 Frank Drake Lectureship are now open, and should be sent to: gro.y1708604953rotav1708604953resbo1708604953bg@er1708604953utcel1708604953ekard1708604953
Venus is hot!
Frank Drake is famous for having done the first SETI search, using the 85-foot Tatel telescope at Green Bank, in 1961. About the same time, he also used the 85-foot telescope to measure microwave radiation from some of the planets at a wavelength of 3 cm.
The radiation from most planets is due to the temperature of the surface of the planet. Previous work by others measured the optical and near infrared radiation from the planets from which one can estimate the temperature. It was expected that the radio radiation would indicate the same temperature as the infra-red.
But Venus was quite a surprise – the 3 cm radiation indicated a temperature much higher than expected, about 600 degrees Kelvin (curiously, when you convert that to Fahrenheit, it is also near 600 degrees).
Venus has a very thick atmosphere which prevents seeing the surface of the planet in the optical and near infrared; the infrared temperature is from the upper part of the atmosphere. On the other hand, the microwave radiation at 3 cm and longer wavelengths comes from the solid surface unhindered by the atmosphere.
The conclusion was that the surface of Venus was very hot, much hotter than the top of her atmosphere. How can that be?
The answer was worked out by Carl Sagan, who calculated how the atmosphere can provide a “greenhouse effect”. Energy from the Sun comes through the atmosphere at a wavelength of a few microns and warms up the surface. The surface radiates the energy back up at longer infrared wavelengths but the radiation is absorbed by the water vapor in the atmosphere and kept near the surface. Whatever oceans Venus may have had in the past have evaporated and formed the thick atmosphere of mostly water vapor. This keeps the surface of Venus uncomfortably hot.
The Earth’s atmosphere also has a greenhouse effect, but much less extreme than on Venus, due to the Earth being somewhat farther from the Sun. Although we worry about the Earth warming up too much, we depend on the effect to keep the Earth comfortable. Without any water vapor and other greenhouse gases, the Earth’s average temperature would be around -20 C (or -2 F).
In 1962, the US launched the first spacecraft to fly by Venus, Mariner 2. An article in “The Observer” (reprinted in “But It Was Fun”, page 83) noted that Mariner 2 measurements got similar results to those that had been found earlier at Green Bank by Dr. Frank Drake with the 85-1. But, of course, Mariner 2 cost enormously more than the observations done at Green Bank.
The Observatory had “scooped” the space mission at very low cost!
Reference: Physics Today, April 1961, page 30
We are seeking an enthusiastic and energetic scientist to join the staff of the Green Bank Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia.
Duties will include providing support for GBT observers as well as developing thorough theoretical and practical knowledge of the microwave holography system which is used for measurement and improvement of the GBT primary surface, working in the area of data reduction and post-processing mathematical analysis. The applicant would eventually assume primary responsibility in this area. Over time, the successful applicant will join other projects, potentially including the development and commissioning of new instrumentation on the telescope, working with the engineering staff to improve the overall telescope performance, and aiding with the data reduction pipelines needed for the GBT.
The Green Bank Observatory employs 100 people on a year round basis, and an additional 40 people in the summer time. We are committed to a diverse and inclusive work place culture that accepts and appreciates all individuals.
Please check out all our current listings.
The last few months have seen many exciting developments at the Green Bank Observatory. Two new 3-mm wavelength instruments are having an excellent first full high frequency season – ARGUS, a 16-pixel spectroscopy contend, and MUSTANG-2, a 223-pixel feedhorn bolometer – and we are looking forward to publication of the instrument’s science results. World-class science coming from both our NSF-funded “open skies” time and the telescope time used by our partner organizations continues to be outstanding. Pressure for use of the GBT’s time also continues to increase, and with 17% of the proposers being new to the GBT! We also have a major new educational initiative underway, First Two, which works to increase retention of STEM students in their first two years of college, with a particular focus on first generation college students.
Looking forward, we are preparing for the many and varied educational programs coming up, which range from REU students arriving for the summer, the PING (Physicist Inspiring the Next Generation) camp for students, a new Research Experience for Teachers program, and many, many more activities. And, of course, we are beginning to ramp up our plans for the fall workshop “Transformative Science for the Next Decades with the Green Bank Observatory,” and the accompanying 60th anniversary of sciences from our facility.
Hope to see many of you at one or more of these exciting events!
Green Bank Observatory Director
Our new SETI Tour celebrates Green Bank’s historic Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence. Piloted last summer, the tour sold out all but three offerings. The tour lasts about 3 hours and takes guests into the telescope control rooms where Project OZMA and Phoenix took place-just to name a few!
Check out our summer tour schedule for 2017 online at: greenbankobservatory.org/events/
Chautauqua Short Courses
May 22nd-25th, 2017
This 2.5 day course is designed to celebrate more than 50 years of contributions to the forefront of astronomy by the telescopes of the Green Bank Observatory and is open to educators of all disciplines. Presentations will emphasize recent research at Green Bank in two areas: pulsar studies, that could lead in the near future to direct detection of gravitational radiation and hydrogen studies that reveal the structure and evolution of galaxies and their dark matter halos.
Learn more: greenbankobservatory.org/education/teachers
June 9th-11th, 2017
It’s a festival. It’s a race. It’s group rides. It’s a clinic. It’s a fundraiser. It’s a tradition. The 6th Annual Space Race Rumpus is a 3-day family music and cycling festival hosted by the Northern Pocahontas Wellness Center at the Green Bank Observatory. If you’ve ever wanted to bring your bike to explore the site trails or miles of scenic roads in Pocahontas County, now’s the time! Registration is now open. Find out more: www.spaceracerumpus.org
ESS Teacher’s Passport
June 18th-July 1st, 2017
ESS Passport is an amazing professional development program for West Virginia science teachers to prepare them to teach Earth and Space Science. Funded by the West Virginia Math Science Partnership program, the Earth/Space Science Passport workshop provides West Virginia science teachers with professional development in Geology, Meterology and Astronomy concepts that will enable them to teach a new mandated ninth grade Earth/Space Science course. Over a twoweek residential workshop teacher groups rotate through three-day directed studies in each of these content areas. The Green Bank Observatory provides the Astronomy course.
Learn more at greenbankobservatory.org/education/teachers/
Pulsar Search Collaboratory Camp
July 10th-17th, 2017
The Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) is a joint project between the Green Bank Observatory and West Virginia University (WVU), funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The goal of the PSC is to give high school students, and their teachers experience doing real research.
Learn more at greenbankobservatory.org/education/student-research/
Just last year, a new documentary (www.lgmfilm.com) called “Little Green Men” was released. The film follows PSC high school students searching for pulsars using data from the Green Bank Telescope.
Physics Inspiring the Next Generation: Investigating the Cosmos Summer Camp Experience
Current 8th graders (rising 9th-graders) will be on location in Green Bank, WV, at NRAO’s world famous Green Bank Telescope. Students will be immersed in the research activities of this national research center. While in residence, students will work in small teams supported by an undergraduate student mentor and an NRAO staff scientist (astronomer, physicist, engineer, etc.) to conduct research by observing the universe with a 40-foot diameter radio telescope.
For more details, visit: greenbankobservatory.org/education/student-research/
Observer Training Workshop
September 18 – 23, 2017
The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) Observer Training Workshop series provides the essential skills and knowledge needed to use the GBT and maximize its scientific output. We’ve reached capacity for the Spring 2017 training, but there will be plenty of openings for the next session, set for the week of September 18th, 2017.
A separate announcement will be made when registration opens for this event.
Transformative Science for the Next Decades with the Green Bank Observatory
October 16 – 20, 2017
Big Questions, Large Programs, and New Instruments: With new instruments and excellent performance, the 100m Green Bank Telescope is only just reaching its full potential. On this 60th anniversary of the ground breaking for the Green Bank Observatory, we are holding a workshop looking toward the next 10, 20, and even 60 years of the Green Bank Observatory, and invite the community to attend and aid us in planning the future.
For more information, please visit our Web site at greenbankobservatory.org/transformative-science/
ARGUS camera for GBT 3mm spectroscopy swings into action
Throughout the winter months of 2016-2017 the new ARGUS 16-pixel camera for 3mm spectroscopy has been in regular use on the GBT. The camera was developed by Sarah Church (Stanford University) and collaborators under a grant from the NSF. The first map made during commissioning was shown in the previous GBO newsletter (https://greenbankobservatory.org/green-bank-observer-vol-1-issue-1/). Data from a number of projects are now in the hands of the PIs for reduction and analysis.
Read full article online:
In October 2016, the Green Bank Observatory received an award from the INCLUDES initiative (NSF #1649323), to build the First Two Network. The problem First Two addresses is post-secondary attrition. Degree completion is key to producing a diverse STEM workforce: Increasing the retention of STEM majors by 25% will “generate three quarters of the targeted 1 million additional STEM degrees needed over the next decade” (PCAST, 2012). Well-shy of half of all undergraduate students who enter STEM majors complete degrees in STEM, and that it is during the first two years of college that most students drop out of the STEM The effects are worse with First Generation College (FGC) students, who not only leave STEM programs but often quit their post-secondary education altogether. Since roughly one third of all post-secondary students are FGC students, addressing the underlying challenges they face could significantly broaden participation in the STEM workforce.
The First Two Network targets rural first generation students who major in a STEM related course of study. Beginning summer 2017, we pilot two early research experiences (for rising freshmen), and an academic year course that builds science process skills, communication skills and leadership expertise. An innovative component of FIRST TWO is the creation of Hometown STEM ambassadors—students who participate will be prepared to mentor their peers, and also conduct outreach in their home school districts.
Finally, there are many studies that inquire into the factors that correlate with post-secondary retention in general, and with STEM attrition specifically but few that focus on rural students. One of our working groups is developing a rigorous educational research project that can advance understanding of the factors affecting rural students’ entry into and persistence in STEM career pathways. For more information about our INCLUDES program, please visit our Education pages at greenbankobservatory.org/education
GBT helps find Lost Spacecraft
Finding a tiny lost space-craft at a distance of 270,000 miles away may seem impossible, but NASA scientists have done just that. Using a new radar technique, they have located India’s Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft which has been lost since August 2009, the last time any communication was received from it.
Read full story here: greenbankobservatory.org/newscontent/observer04.17.html
GBT Observations Compound Intersellar Helium Ionization Problem
Warm ionized gas is a major constituent of the Galactic interstellar medium, observable through both optical and radio emission lines. To maintain its ionization it requires about 80% of the ionizing radiation from all OB stars in the Galaxy; this is presumably supplied by UV photons leaking from HII regions.
This UV leakage should be sufficient to fully ionize Helium in the diffuse ionized gas, but instead, the fractional ionization of He appears to be relatively low, in the range of 10-20%.
Recent observations with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) compound this problem. A set of H and He recombination lines was observed toward the envelopes of three ultra-compact HII regions that are still embedded in their molecular clouds. The envelopes have emission measures an order of magnitude greater than that of the warm ionized gas, and are just a few parsecs away from the central stars, which have type O5 or earlier. The data indicate that He is not uniformly ionized in the HII region envelopes. In two cases helium in the envelope is only 30% and 50% ionized. After ruling out the possibility that the helium may be doubly ionized, the authors conclude that the most likely explanation for the discrepancy is selective absorption of helium-ionizing photons by dust.
“Helium Ionization in the Diffuse Ionized Gas Surrounding UCHHII Regions” D. Anish Roshi, E. Churchwell and L. D. Anderson, accepted by the Astrophysical Journal.
GBT hits new performance milestone at 109 GHz
With the installation of the Argus 16-pixel receiver covering 75-115 GHz on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), it is now possible to characterize the antenna beam above 100 GHz, where the use of the active surface and out-of-focus holography are critical to the telescope’s performance. A recent measurement (2017 March 23) in good weather conditions at 109.4 GHz yielded a FWHM beam of 6.7 arcsec and 6.4 arcsec in azimuth and elevation, respectively. This corresponds to 1.16 Lambda/D at 109.4 GHz, which agrees well with the low-frequency value measured at 9.0 GHz. After applying the standard antenna corrections (focus and active surface), we find no measurable degradation of the beam of the GBT at its highest operational frequencies.
These results are discussed in more detail in the GBT Memo #296: library.nrao.edu/public/memos/gbt/GBT_296.pdf
GBO Post-doc Jennifer Weston Wins dissertation prize
Jennifer Weston has just won the 2016 Robert L. Brown Outstanding Doctoral Dissertation Award. The award presentation, and her talk on the research which led to the award, will be in Charlottesville on April 13.
The Robert L. Brown Outstanding Doctoral Dissertation Award is administered by AUI and the NRAO on behalf of Bob Brown’s friends and family to honor Bob’s life and career. The Award is given each year to a recent recipient of a doctoral degree from any recognized degree granting institution in the United States, and is substantially based on new observational data obtained at any AUI operated facility and considered to be of an exceptionally high scientific standard.
Featured Receiver – ASIAA 800 MHz HIM Receiver Array
In November of last year, a collaborative effort involving representatives of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Wisconsin, NRAO, and the Green Bank Observatory gathered to review designs for a proposed focal plane array for the GBT. The proposed receiver system improves the observing efficiency in the 700 to 900 MHz band by replacing the single corrugated prime focus feed with seven short backfire antennas each with an individually cooled cryogenic dewar. The group faced many technical challenges, especially the weight and moment limits of the GBT prime focus feed arm. Some of the margins were razor thin and thus the group plans more modeling of the structure for a better understanding of the wind load analysis.
Read full story online: greenbankobservatory.org/newscontent/observer04.17.html
New Phased Array Feed Successfully Commissioned on the GBT
The L-band cryogenic Phased Array Feed (PAF) receiver, with nineteen dual-polarization crossed dipoles located in the focal plane of a reflector antenna, was commissioned on the GBT in March 2017. The testing has confirmed the predicted excellent performance of the PAF, and has also commissioned the unformatted digital link technology developed by NRAO’s Central Development Lab.
Phased Arrays employ a technique in which many small antennas can be combined together to perform the function of a single large antenna. By combining the small antennas together with adjustable phase and amplitude, the properties of the composite antenna beam can be changed (beamwidth and beam direction). Since the beamforming is accomplished by FPGA-based digital signal processing, multiple beams can be simultaneously formed increasing telescope throughput (in this case seven beams in each polarization were formed).
The PAF was developed as part of a collaboration consisting of NRAO, GBO, West Virginia University, and Brigham Young University. More information will be forthcoming as data results are analyzed.
Students track anomalies in the fading of Cassiopeia A
Every summer since 1992, Prof. Dan Reichart of the University of North Carolina (UNC) and a small group of astronomy faculty have taken 15 mostly undergraduate students through an intense, one-week workshop at the Green Bank Observatory called “Educational Research in Radio Astronomy” (ERIRA). While on site the students are engaged in several observing projects with the 40 Foot Telescope including observations of Cassiopeia A, Taurus A, and Cygnus A.
Read Full Story online: greenbankobservatory.org/newscontent/observer04.17.html
Student Art Exhibit
To show support for the Green Bank Telescope, Green Bank Middle School students created some amazing 2-D and 3-D art projects. From intricate Popsicle-stick GBT models to precise blueprint-style charcoal drawings, works included a wide variety in chosen mediums. This project was lead by the art teacher, Alison Flegal, who created the project as a way for students to voice their support for the Green Bank Telescope in response to 2016’s Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Call for Public Comments. In fact, a few of the works were submitted formally and included among the hundreds of letters. In March, the Green Bank Science Center hosted an art exhibit opening for these works, which are now on display in the lobby. During the opening, these young artists presented their work to both staff and the public. The Green Bank Observatory is an education partner of the Green Bank Elementary Middle School as part of our outreach program.
New online reservation system coming soon!
Coming Soon! The Green Bank Software Development Division will soon release the new Green Bank Observatory Reservation System (GBORS), replacing the previous BOS system and offering expanded capabilities. GBORS will accept reservation requests for everything from an overnight stay to planning a conference. When launched, look for it on our website!
Upcoming call for GBT proposals (18A)
The Green Bank Observatory (GBO) will invite scientists to participate in the next Call for Proposals for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The deadline is August 1st, 2017 for Semester 2018A.
Response to the 17B Call for GBT proposals
The 1 February 2017 call for proposals to use the GBT beginning the second semester of 2017 elicited requests for 6647 hours in 100 individual proposals. In the 3mm band there were requests for 1,148 hours for spectroscopy and continuum using the new ARGUS and MUSTANG2 cameras, as well as an additional 191 hours for spectroscopy and VLBI with the 2-pixel”W band” receiver which covers the lower part of the band. Demand for the7-pixel “K-band” camera that covers 18-26 GHz continued to be strong, at 645 hours. More than 3,000 hours were also requested at frequencies below 2 GHz for programs of spectroscopy and pulsar studies.
There were a number of proposals for joint observations with ALMA, the JVLA,Fermi, and other instruments.
More than 17% of the proposers had not previously been on a GBT proposal, showing the continued strong growth of the scientific community’s interest in the GBT. Proposals are now undergoing review and results should be available in early May.
A bit of history: The Green Bank Interferometer confirmed Einstein’s theory
Einstein’s theory of gravity (also known as General Relativity) predicts that the path of a ray of light (or that of a radio wave) will bend when it passes near a massive object. This was first tested in 1919 by Sir Arthur Eddington, who organized an expedition to observe star positions during an eclipse of the Sun from islands near the coast of Africa.
Observing stars close to the edge of the Sun is normally impossible, but during an eclipse, the Sun is blocked out and stars nearby can be observed. The 1919 experiment confirmed the theory and made an instant celebrity of Einstein and of General Relativity.
Read full story online: greenbankobservatory.org/newscontent/observer04.17.html
MEET THE STAFF
Thomas Chamberlain, Software Engineer
How long have you worked at GBO?
Just under two years now; I started February 23rd, 2015, right after I graduated.
What led you to applying for the position?
Well, I guess there’s some backstory here. My grandfather worked here in the late fifties and early sixties as an operator before moving on to JPL, Socorro, and later Charlottesville. My mother was actually born in Marlinton in 1961, although they left early enough that she doesn’t remember it. She’s an accountant and she was looking for jobs online when, as she tells it, just happened to think of checking out the NRAO for any openings. She’s wanted to get out of the Atlanta suburbs for a while, and I think she has fond memories of this area, going to the summer picnic as a kid and such. She saw a software engineering position open, thought “I think Thomas does that”, and passed it along to me.
Learn more about Thomas here:
Become a Member
Want to help support the Green Bank Observatory? We now have a new Membership and Donation program! Check out the variety of opportunities found at greenbankobservatory.org/engage/
The Green Bank Observatory employs 100 people on a year round basis, and an additional 40 people in the summer time. While most people tend to think of Green Bank as hiring scientists and astronomers, it takes a village to run the scientific and educational programs. While we have staff from all around the world, the majority of our employees (80%) were born in West Virginia, and roughly 60% of the staff are from Pocahontas County. Of the astronomy staff, 40% are female (compared to the national average of less than 30%). We are committed to a diverse and inclusive work place culture that accepts and appreciates all individuals.
Career opportunities can be found at a new website!Please check out our current listings here: greenbankobservatory.org/careers/
IN THIS ISSUE
- Director’s Notes
- Upcoming Events
- Meet the Staff
- Career Opportunities
Welcome to the first issue of The Observer, the Green Bank Observatory’s quarterly newsletter. As many of you are aware, after almost 60 years in the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, we have branched off to become a separate organization – the Green Bank Observatory. While the separation entails many changes for the facility and staff, we are endeavoring to keep the changes as smooth as possible for our user community. As a result, the proposal process for the GBT will remain synchronized with that of our sister organizations the NRAO and the Long Baseline Observatory. Many of the other changes we are undergoing, such as the website transition, are described within this newsletter.
2016 was a busy year for the Green Bank Observatory. In addition to transitioning to a separate organization, we have two new high frequency instruments coming online this winter – MUSTANG2, a 70-105 GHz, 210 element bolometer array, and ARGUS, a 75-116 GHz, 16 element focal plane array. Both instruments have been through their initial science commissioning and are already taking early science data. Also in 2016 we began two exciting new contracts with the Breakthrough Foundation and with NANOGrav. Breakthrough Listen is the largest ever scientific research program aimed at finding evidence of civilizations beyond Earth. The scope and power of the search are on an unprecedented scale – the program includes a survey of the 1,000,000 closest stars to Earth. It scans the center of our galaxy and the entire galactic plane. Beyond the Milky Way, it listens for messages from the 100 closest galaxies to ours. NANOGrav monitors a set of pulsars that together form a Galactic scale gravitational-wave observatory. The data collected is also used to study supermassive black hole binaries in order to understand the morphology, kinematics, gas content, and feedback mechanisms of galaxies.
In the next few months we will be seeing quite a few improvements to the Green Bank Observatory. This winter will be our first excellent season for high frequency observing with ARGUS and MUSTANG2. Additionally, the first few pulsar observing modes with VEGAS, our FPGA/GPU signal processing system, will be released. And over the next few months we will be releasing a new reservations system for visitors coming to the site.
Finally, I am excited to announce that this fall we will be having both a celebration of 60 years as a world class astronomical facility and a workshop looking toward the long term future of our facility and its instruments. Information on the workshop is given later in this newsletter, and information on the 60th anniversary celebration will be forthcoming.
Wishing all of you a fantastic 2017,
Green Bank Observatory Director
Observer Training Workshop (May 15-19)
The Green Bank Observatory’s Observer training schools provide an introduction to general radio astronomical techniques as well as onsite training for GBT observers. These training schools will replace the single-dish summer schools which have held in the past, and will be scheduled two to three times each year. The next training school will be held May 15-19, 2017 in Green Bank, with the following school September 18-22, 2017.
We still encourage new observers to visit the Observatory, where their projects will receive priority scheduling and where local staff are on hand to assist in the observations. For further information, please see:
Transformative Science for the Next Decades with the Green Bank Observatory
Big Questions, Large Programs, and New Instruments (October 16-20): With new instruments and excellent performance, the 100m Green Bank Telescope is only just reaching its full potential. On this 60th anniversary of the ground breaking for the Green Bank Observatory, we are holding a workshop looking toward the next 10, 20, and even 60 years of the Green Bank Observatory, and invite the community to attend and aid us in planning the future. For further information, please see: greenbankobservatory.org/transformative-science
Skynet Junior Scholars
The Skynet Junior Scholars program will host a 7-week guided, online professional development workshop from January 12th to February 23rd. The workshop will enable program participants to lead informal educational experiences for students in the SJS program. Skynet Junior Scholars (SJS) is designed to engage young explorers in the study of the universe using the same tools as professionals. The SJS web portal connects middle and high-school aged youth with activities, resources and guidance to become scholars of the sky. Workshop participants will receive educational kits and online access to optical and radio telescopes, data analysis tools, and professional astronomers. Upon completion, workshop participants must lead a group of students through the program by June to complete the leadership program. Find out more at: greenbankobservatory.org/education/student-research/
Pulsar Search Collaboratory
For all teachers, informal STEM educators who work with high school students, and students in grades 9-12. Join the Pulsar Search Collaboratory! Learn all about pulsars and how to analyze data taken by the Green Bank Telescope from renowned pulsar astronomers during our next online workshop! The workshop begins January 12 with a meeting just for teachers. Then, the six-week workshop begins for everybody the following week: January 19 at 7:30.
Learn more about the program and sign up here: pulsarsearchcollaboratory.com/home/join-the-psc/
Green Bank Telescope Time Allocation for Semester 17b
The Green Bank Observatory (GBO) invites scientists to participate in the GBO’s 2017B Semester Call for Proposals for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Proposals requesting the GBT as part of High Sensitivity Array (HSA), and Global 3mm VLBI Array (GMVA) should be submitted through the Long Baseline Observatory’s call (available here).
The submission deadline for Semester 2017B proposals is Wednesday, 1 February 2017, at 17:00 EST (22:00 UTC).
The GBO wishes to remind proposers of continuing opportunities for joint observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
The GBO strongly encourages proposers to carefully read through the News and Opportunities section of the proposal as there have been a number of changes made to instrument availability.
Proposal preparation and submission remain via the NRAO Proposal Submission Tool (PST) available at NRAO Interactive Services. Note that the PST use requires registration. Proposers who need assistance with proposal preparation or have questions regarding the Call or GBT capabilities should contact Observatory staff via the Helpdesk.
A Wide Range of Black Hole Masses in Spiral Galaxies
Many spiral galaxies have circumnuclear accretion disks whose properties can be determined through observations of H2O megamasers. The Green Bank Telescope has been systematically discovering such accretion disks, and through participation in VLBI network observations, measuring the mass of the central black hole. Black hole masses derived this way can be extremely accurate, with uncertainties at the level of 5% to 10%, and follow from Keplerian rotation of the accretion disk at radii of 0.2-1 pc.
Green et al (2016) have used the results of this work for spiral galaxies to consider the connection, if any, between galaxy properties and the mass of the central black hole. They conclude that no galaxy property correlates tightly with the mass of the black hole as traced by megamaser disks in L* spiral galaxies.
They find that megamaser disk galaxies have a MBH-sigma* relationship that differs significantly from that established for the early-type galaxies. At a given sigma*, the disk galaxies have significantly smaller black hole masses, with a larger scatter, than the early-type galaxies.
The disk galaxy properties like total mass and central velocity dispersion also lie within a much narrower range than the black hole masses. It appears that the relationship between nuclear black hole mass and other properties of late-type galaxies remains to be understood.
Greene, J.E. et al, 2016, ApJ, 826, L32
MUSTANG 2: an extremely sensitive, 100 ghz bolometer array
The performance of the newly completed MUSTANG-2 bolometer camera has been verified on the 100-meter Green Bank Telescope and astronomical observations have begun.
MUSTANG-2 sensitively maps broad-spectrum emission on the sky in the 70 to 105 GHz range using 210 individual bolometric detectors, each coupled to the sky with its own feed horn. It will be used for many different types of astronomical studies ranging from detailed imaging of galaxy clusters in the early universe to mapping areas of star formation in our own Galaxy. MUSTANG-2 is the successor to the GBT’s pathfinder 3mm bolometer camera, MUSTANG, and represents a large step forward in sensitivity, fidelity, and robustness. To verify the performance of MUSTANG-2 the instrument team spent 40 minutes mapping a region of star formation in the Orion nebula that had previously been studied by MUSTANG (a press release on the original MUSTANG result can be found here). The new and old maps are very similar even though the old map required over 20 times more telescope time to acquire. Nearly 230 hours of highly-oversubscribed hours of GBT 3mm observing time have been allocated for MUSTANG-2 observing in the 2016/2017 season.
The receiver was developed by a collaboration consisting of the University of Pennsylvania, NRAO, NIST, the University of Michigan, the University of Kwazulu-Natal, and Cardiff University, with support from the NSF’s ATI program.
In December, the Green Bank Science Center hosted our 4th Annual Pocahontas County Science Fair. What a fun day for everyone! We had over 40 volunteers from GBO staff, the Forest Service and the local schools serve as judges and activity leaders. This year, 104 students entered 79 group and individual projects! Students not only competed for top project awards, but enjoyed a day of science and engineering activities. In the star lab, activity leaders challenged students to build a bridge that could hold weight with nothing more than index cards. In the classroom, students designed and built their own robot that could replicate similar scribbles made by our top-secret prototype scribblebot. In another collaborative activity, students moved a small ball from one can to another-using only strings! Being a judge this year was no easy task with so many creative and well-designed projects, however, the top prizes went to some very deserving students.
The top overall winners were: Willie O’Ganian from GBEMS in the elementary competition with “Give Primates a Hand!”, Jaryd Friel from Marlinton Middle School in the middle school division with “Cleaning Coins”, and Pocahontas County High School student Abram Leyzorek won in the high school division with “The effect of Microwaved Water on Feed Corn Growth”.
16 Element Focal Plane Array, ARGUS
Argus is a new 16-element 75-116 GHz focal plane array instrument installed on the GBT. The instrument has successfully completed its initial phases of commissioning and is ready for shared-risk science observations with the GBT.
The image is the result of an early test map taken using all 16 beams of Argus.
The image shows the integrated emission from the 13CO molecule associated with the star-formation region DR21.
This 10’x3’ map required about 40 minutes of telescope time and was taken in non-optimal weather conditions (zenith opacity of 0.42). The image is the result of the default data processing without any data editing. The beam size of the GBT is shown in white at the lower-right of the image for comparison.
Argus is a collaboration between Stanford University (PI Sarah Church), Caltech, JPL, University of Maryland, Universtiy of Miami, and the Green Bank Observatory. Information about the instrument can be found on the ARGUS web-page.
Boy Scout Merit Badge Weekends
Our new Boy Scout Merit Badge Weekends received such a positive response, the event has become a monthly offering for 2017!
Often reserved months in advance, scout groups of all ages book their weekend here in Green Bank, earning their badges in astronomy or electronics. Scouts learn constellations in the star lab, use the 40-ft Telescope to perform a hands-on research experiment, investigate radio frequency interference and learn about motion of stars and planets. Each weekend, the science center hosts up to 60 or more scouts, often from several troops for the program.
Find out more at: www.greenbankobservatory.org/scoutweekends
As many of you are likely aware, the Green Bank Observatory has a new website, greenbankobservatory.org
The new website will provide all information about the Observatory, from science news through educational events. However, transitioning to the new website will take time. As a result, you will find that much of the material relevant to scientists interested in taking scientific data with the Green Bank Telescope still resides at its former web address:
As content is migrated, the links will be updated to reflect the new web addresses.
John Findlay’s Golf Story
John Findlay, NRAO’s first head of engineering and electronic design, supervised the construction of the 300-foot telescope during 1961-62. He recounts the 300-foot construction project in a paper he gave at the 300-foot 25th birthday celebration in September 1987, which is reprinted in “But it was Fun”, page 145.
The contractor that built the telescope was Bristol Steel and Iron, of Bristol, Virginia. Findlay made frequent trips to Bristol to review the project and disuss changes. The head of BS&I, Jim Tilley, made sure the meetings ended at 12:30 so they could play golf in the afternoon.
Findlay recalls a plan he made for the opening ceremony of the 300-foot telescope:
“Since we are telling stories, I told you that we had to play golf every day we went to Bristol when we were building [the 300 Foot]. And Jim Tilley was not a very good golfer and he had never made a hole-in-one …
I took a nine-iron to the 300 Foot to see if I could hit a ball high enough to get it into the dish. If I had been able to do so I would have offered Jim the opportunity of making a hole-in-one. If this had worked then at the opening ceremony I would have allowed the golf ball to run down the dish and fall through the hole in the middle and with any luck break some small receptacle containing an alcoholic liquid and that would have completed the circuit. But I couldn’t hit a ball into the dish! “
Meet the Staff
A Full Complement of Post Docs
The Green Bank Scientific division has employed a full complement of Post Docs. Our three Post Docs Nichol Cunningham, Jennifer Weston and Natalia Lewandowska are quickly settling into their roles as part of the Scientific team by coordinating colloquia, working with visiting student groups, supporting the GBT observers and doing their own research.
Nichol is from the United Kingdom and a scholar from Leeds University started at the GB site in September 2015. Nichol has already been a prominent addition to Rec Board by being the official party organizer for the Spring Party, organizing the Post Doc Symposium and coordinating volunteers for the Space Race Rumpus. Nichol’s research is focused on star and galaxy formations.
Jennifer arrived in March after finishing her PhD at Columbia University. Jennifer too has joined the Rec Board and taught during the Research Student Boot Camp. Her research is focused on using radio observations of novae and symbiotic systems to examine the evolution of accreting dwarf galaxies among other things.
Natalia is our newest arrival just joining us in April. She came directly from defending her PhD in Germany at the University of Wurzburg. Natalia’s research is focused on the study of giant radio pulses. Natalia just returned from a conference at the VLA and will be settling into her new role in Green Bank.
The Education Specialist assists the Green Bank Senior Education Officer in designing, funding, and implementing formal and informal education program, and leads, develops, and actively participates in the K-12 education, public outreach, and visitor center programs at the Green Bank Observatory
View posting online: go.nrao.edu/gbo-ed-specialist
Summer Student Opportunities
Since its inception in 1959, the Green Bank Observatory Summer Student Research Assistantship program has engaged over 1,000 young people in scientific research, and many of our summer students have gone on to distinguished careers in astronomy, physics, and other sciences. The list of former NRAO summer students includes women and men who represent a wide range of careers, research interests, geographic locations, and backgrounds.
Required application materials include the following:
- Completed on-line application form
- Copies of transcripts (unofficial) from all colleges or universities you attended. You will be prompted at the end of the application process to attach a single PDF file containing your transcripts.
- Letters of recommendation, submitted using our online form, from three people who can evaluate your ability, experience, and potential.
View posting online: go.nrao.edu/gbo-summer-research
The Green Bank Observatory now has membership and other donation opportunities. On the new “Engage” page (greenbankobservatory.org/engage) guests can make a donation, volunteer, or become a member of the Green Bank Observatory.
Green Bank Observatory
155 Observatory Rd
P.O. Box 2
Green Bank, WV 24944 (USA)
Reservations, Field Trips, Tours, Events, and General Information
Reception; (304) 456-2011;
Newsletter Information, submissions
Public RFI Questions:
The Green Bank Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation and is operated by Associated Universities, Inc.
Spring 2017 GBT Observer Training Workshop
May 15 – 19, 2017, Green Bank Observatory
The GBT Observer Training Workshop will provide the essential skills and knowledge that observers need to maximize the scientific output of
their use of the Green Bank Telescope. After completing the workshop, attendees will be certified to remotely observe with GBT. The workshop will consist of classroom lectures that provide background on observing techniques with the GBT and single dish radio telescopes more generally, as well as hands-on use of the GBT under the guidance of observatory staff. Topics to be covered include radio telescope fundamentals, observing and calibration techniques, the impact of weather, the GBT observing procedure and software, data reduction, remote observing, telescope scheduling, and remote observing.
Attendees will perform group observing projects that are representative of the observing techniques most relevant to their areas of interest
(e.g. high frequency mapp, continuum, pulsar, etc.).
These workshops will be held twice a year and will complement traditional on-site training.
The workshop will begin on May 15 and end on May 19, 2017. Attendees should plan on arriving in Green Bank on May 14 and departing May 20.
A detailed schedule is forthcoming. For reference, the Fall 2016 schedule is available here.
Travel, Lodging, and Meals
The Green Bank Observatory is located in Green Bank, West Virginia.
The street address is:
155 Observatory Road
Green Bank, WV, 24944
The observatory is approximately 4-5 hours from Washington, DC and Pittsburgh, PA, and approximately 2.5 hours from Charlottesville, VA.
We recommend that workshop attendees traveling by air fly into Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD) or
Charlottesville-Albemarle Regional Airport (CHO). Shuttle service is available to and from both airports.
Attendees will stay in the observatory dormitory. Meals will be provided on-site. The cost of lodging and meals is included in
Attendees traveling from abroad who will need a formal letter of invitation to obtain a visa should contact Ryan Lynch (ude.o1708604953arn@h1708604953cnylr1708604953).
Radio Frequency Interference and the National Radio Quiet Zone
Green Bank Observatory is located in the heart of the National Radio Quiet Zone and the West Virginia Radio Astronomy Zone. These areas provide regulatory protection against certain sources of radio frequency interference that may otherwise negatively impact the scientific operations of the observatory. There is no cell phone reception within many miles of the observatory. GPS navigation typically works but should not be solely relied upon, and maps should be downloaded for offline use. The use of wireless internet, Bluetooth, and other wireless communications is strictly prohibited on observatory grounds. Electronic equipment, including digital cameras, are prohibited near telescopes.
Wired ethernet connections are available for use by attendees in work areas and the residence hall rooms, and observatory computing resources will also be accessible. Attendees should be sure that any personal computers or tablets are compatible with a wired ethernet connection. Adapters for tablets and ultra-portable laptops will *not* be provided.
More information is available here.
Odds and Ends
Green Bank is located in the Appalachian Mountains at an elevation of 3,200 feet (975 meters). Weather in mid-May can still be quite cool at night and even during the day. Closed-toe shoes are required for tours of the GBT.
Questions should be directed to Ryan Lynch (ude.o1708604953arn@h1708604953cnylr1708604953)
Big Questions, Large Programs, and New Instruments (October 16-20): With new instruments and excellent performance, the 100m Green Bank Telescope is only just reaching its full potential. On this 60th anniversary of the ground breaking for the Green Bank Observatory, we are holding a workshop looking toward the next 10, 20, and even 60 years of the Green Bank Observatory, and invite the community to attend and aid us in planning the future.